Reduced relative clauses упражнения

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Relative clauses (exercises) (Придаточные определительные предложения. Упражнения)

1 Underline any relative pronouns that can be left out in these sentences.

1 I think that my boss is the person who I admire most.

2 Harry, who was tired, went to bed very early.

3 Were taking the train that leaves at 6.00.

4 Have you seen the book that I left here on the desk?

5 The film which we liked most was the French one.

6 My radio, which isn’t very old, has suddenly stopped working.

7 The clothes which you left behind are at the reception desk.

8 The couple who met me at the station took me out to dinner.

9 Last week I ran into an old friend who I hadn’t seen for ages.

10 Don’t cook the meat that I put in the freezer — it’s for the dog.

2 Replace the relative pronouns in italics with that , where possible.

1 This is the magazine which I told you about.

. This is the magazine that I tild you about .

2 John’s flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.

3 The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.

4 The policeman who arrested her had recognized her car.

5 I work with someone who knows you.

6 We don’t sell goods which have been damaged.

7 Brighton, which is on the south coast, is a popular holiday resort.

8 I don’t know anyone whose clothes would fit you.

9 There’s a cafe near here which serves very good meals.

10 People who park outside get given parking tickets.

3 Underline the most suitable word in each sentence.

1 My friend Jack, that / who / whose parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland.

2 Here’s the computer program that / whom / whose I told you about.

3 I don’t believe the story that / who / whom she told us.

4 Peter comes from Witney, that / who / which is near Oxford.

5 This is the gun with that / whom / which the murder was committed.

6 Have you received the parcel whom / whose / which we sent you?

7 Is this the person who / which / whose you asked me about?

8 That’s the girl that / who / whose brother sits next to me at school.

9 The meal, that / which / whose wasn’t very tasty, was quite expensive.

10 We didn’t enjoy the play that / who / whose we went to see.

4 Put one suitable word in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

MURDER AT THE STATION by Lorraine Small Episode 5: Trouble on the 6.15 The story so far:

Jane Platt, (1) ….who. is travelling to London because of a mysterious letter, is the only person (2). witnesses a murder at Victoria Station. The detective to (3). she gives her statement then disappears. Jane goes to an office in Soho to answer the letter (4). she had received. There she discovers that her uncle Gordon, (5). lives in South America, has sent her a small box (6). she is only to open if in trouble. Jane,(7). parents have never mentioned an Uncle Gordon, is suspicious of the box, (8). she gives to her friend Tony. They go to Scotland Yard and see Inspector Groves, (9). has not heard of the Victoria Station murder, (10). was not reported to the police. Jane gives Inspector Groves the murdered man’s ticket, (11). she found beside his body. Then Jane and Tony decide to go to Redhill, (12). was. The town (13). the murdered man had come from. On the train they meet a man, (14). face is somehow familiar to Jane, (15). says he knows her Uncle Gordon …

5 Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the space blank where possible.

1 My bike, . wich. I had left at the gate, had disappeared.

2 The shoes. I bought were the ones. I tried on first.

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3 The bag in. the robbers put the money was found later.

4 The medicine. the doctor gave me had no effect at all.

5 Peter. couldn’t see the screen, decided to change his seat.

6 I really liked that tea. you made me this morning.

7 What was the name of your friend. tent we borrowed?

8 The flight. Joe was leaving on was cancelled.

6 Make one sentence from each group of sentences, beginning as shown.

1 The hotel was full of guests. The hotel was miles from anywhere. The guests had gone there to admire the scenery.

The hotel, which. ..was miles from anywhere was full of guests who had gone there to admire the scenery.

2 I lent you a book. It was written by a friend of mine. She lives in France.

3 A woman’s handbag was stolen. A police officer was staying in the same hotel. The woman was interviewed by him.

The woman whose.

4 A goal was scored by a teenager. He had come on as substitute. This goal won the match.

5 I was sitting next to a boy in the exam. He told me the answers.

6 My wallet contained over £100. It was found in the street by a schoolboy. He returned it.

7 My friend Albert has decided to buy a motorbike. His car was stolen last week. My friend Albert.

8 Carol is a vegetarian. I cooked a meal for her last week. She enjoyed it. Carol.

7 Make one new sentence from each pair of sentences. Begin as shown, and use the word given in capitals.

Brenda is a friend. I went on holiday with her.

Brenda is . the friend who I went on holiday.

This is Mr Smith. His son Bill plays in our team.

This is Mr Smith.

Her book was published last year. It became a best seller.

This is the bank. We borrowed the money from it.

This is the bank from.

I told you about a person. She is at the door.

Jack’s car had broken down. He had to take a bus.

8 Make one sentence from each group of sentences, beginning as shown.

1 I got on a train. I wanted to go to a station. The train didn’t stop there.

The train I.. got on didn’t stop at the station I wanted to go to .

2 I read a book. You recommended a book to me. This was the book.

3 The ship hit an iceberg and sank. Warning messages had been sent to it. The ship ignored these.

4 The postman realized I was on holiday. You had sent me a parcel. The postman left it next door.

5 I used to own a dog. People came to the door. The dog never barked at them. The dog I.

6 I bought my bike from a woman. She lives in a house. You can see the house over there.

7 We went to a beach on the first day of our holiday. It was covered in seaweed. This smelled a lot.

8 My neighbours have three small children. The children make a lot of noise.

My neighbours never apologize.

9 I bought a new computer. It cost me a lot of money.

9 These sentences are all grammatically possible, but not appropriate in speech. Rewrite each sentence so that it ends with the preposition in italics.

1 Margaret is the girl with whom I went on holiday.

. Margaret is the girl I went on holiday .

2 The golf club is the only club of which I am a member.

3 That’s the girl about whom we were talking.

4 It was a wonderful present, for which I was extremely grateful.

5 This is the school to which I used to go.

6 Is this the case in which we should put the wine glasses?

7 Can you move the chair on which you are sitting?

8 That’s the shop from which I got my shoes.

9 Is that the person next to whom you usually sit?

10 This is Bill, about whom you have heard so much.

1 1 who. 2 none. 3 none. 4 that. 5 which. 6 none. 7 which. 8 none. 9 who. 10 that.

2 1 that I told you about. 2 not possible. 3 not possible. 4 that arrested her. 5 that knows you. 6 that have been damaged. 7 not possible. 8 not possible. 9 that serves very good meals. 10 that park outside.

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3 1 whose. 2 that. 3 that. 4 which. 5 which. 6 which.7 who. 8 whose. 9 which.10 that.

4 1 who. 2 who. 3 whom. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 which. 7 whose. 8 which. 9 who. 10 which. 11 which. 12 which. 13 blank. 14 whose. 15 who.

5 1 which. 2 blank, blank. 3 which. 4 blank. 5 who. 6 blank. 7 whose. 8 blank.

6 1 The hotel, which was miles from anywhere,was full of guests who had gone there to admire the scenery.

2 The book I lent you was written by a friend of mine who lives in France. 3 The woman whose handbag was stolen was interviewed by a police officer who was staying in the same hotel. 4 The goal which won the match was scored by a teenager who had come on as a substitute. 5 The boy I was sitting next to in the exam told me the answers. 6 My wallet, which contained over $100, was found in the street by a schoolboy who returned it/ was returned by a schoolboy who found in it the street. 7 My friend Albert, whose car was stolen last week, has decided to buy a motorbike. 8 Carol, who is a vegetarian, enjoyed the meal I cooked for her last week.

7 1 Brenda is the friend who I went on holiday with. 2 This is Mr Smith, whose son Bill plays in our team. 3 Her book, which was published last year, became a best seller. 4 This is the bank from which we borrowed the money. 5 The person who I told you about is at the door. 6 Jack, whose car had broken down, had to take a bus.

8 1 The train I got on didn’t stop at the station I wanted to go to. 2 The book I read was the book/ one you recommended to me. 3 The ship, which had ignored the warning messages sent to it,hit an iceberg and sank. 4 The postman, who realized I was on holiday, left the parcel you had sent me next door. 5 The dog I used to own never barked at people who came to the door. 6 The woman I bought my bike from lives in the house you can see over there.7 The beach we went to on the first day of our holiday was covered in seaweed which smelled a lot. 8 My neighbours, whose three small children make a lot of noise, never apologize. 9 The new computer I bought cost me a lot of money.

9 1 Margaret is the girl I went on holiday with. 2 The golf club is the only club I am a member of. 3 That’s the girl we were talking about. 4 It was a wonderful present, which I was extremely grateful for. 5 This is the school I used to go to. 6 Is this the case we should put the wine glasses in? 7 Can you move the chair you are sitting on? 8 That’s the shop I got my shoes from. 9 Is that the person you usually sit next to? 10 This is Bill, who you’ve heard so much about.

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Reduced relative clauses

August 24, 2013 —

A relative clause is a type of subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun.

  • What is the name of that boy who just walked in?

Here the clause ‘who just walked in’ is an example of a relative clause. It modifies the noun boy. Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses.

Relative clauses are sometimes shortened.

How to reduce a relative clause?

A participle can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.

Read the sentence given below.

The girl who sits next to Peter is my neighbor’s daughter.

Now when we shorten the relative clause ‘who sits next to Peter’, we get:

The girl sitting next to Peter is my neighbor’s daughter.

Another example is given below.

Who is the girl who is sitting next to your brother?

Now when we reduce the relative clause, we get:

Who is the girl sitting next to your brother?

More examples are given below.

A girl who works at a pub has won a lottery.
A girl working at a pub has won a lottery.

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The lady who lives next door throws numerous parties.
The lady living next door throws numerous parties.

Yesterday I read a book which was written by Hemingway.
Yesterday I read a book written by Hemingway.

Most people who were invited to the party didn’t turn up.
Most people invited to the party didn’t turn up.

Anyone who enters the garden without permission will be punished.
Anyone entering the garden without permission will be punished.

Reduced structures can also be used with the adjectives available and possible.

Please book all the tickets available. (= Please book all the tickets that are available.)

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Reduced Relative Clauses

You may remove the relative pronoun and reduce your sentence in certain conditions.

The man who wants to talk to you is waiting for you.
The man wanting to talk to you is waiting for you.

Relative Clause Reduction Rules

1. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object.

The boy who / whom / that you don’t like much wants to talk to you.
The boy you don’t like much wants to talk to you.

Note: In non-defining sentences you neither omit the relative pronoun nor use «that».

My mother, who / whom that you met yesterday, wants to talk to you.
My mother you met yesterday.

2. We can use participles when reducing the sentence.

a) Present Participle «V-ing» (simultaneous)

We stood on the bridge which connects the two halves of the city.
We stood on the bridge connecting the two halves of the city.(Present Participle)

b) Past Participle «V3 or being V3» (passive simultaneous)

The boy who was attacked by a dog was taken to hospital.
The boy attacked by a dog was taken to hospital. (Past Participle)

c) Perfect Participle «having V3» (active-explaining sth. happened before the others)

Jenna, who has lived in Florida for 20 years, has gone through several hurricanes.
Jenna, having lived in Florida for 20 years, has gone through several hurricanes.(Perfect Participle)
Having lived in Florida for 20 years, Jenna has gone through several hurricanes.(Perfect Participle)

d) Perfect Passive Participle «having been V3» (passive-explaining sth happened before the others)

Usain Bolt, who had been disqualified from the men’s 100m final after a false start, made no such mistake in the 200m.
Usain Bolt, having been disqualified from the men’s 100m final after a false start, made no such mistake in the 200m.(Perfect passive participle)
Having been disqualified from the men’s 100m final after a false start, Usain Bolt made no such mistake in the 200m.(Perfect passive participle)

3. If «To be» verb is used after a relative pronoun we can omit «Relative Pronoun + To be».

The car which is parked next to mine is very expensive.
The car parked next to mine is very expensive.

Hamlet, which was written by Shakespeare sometime in the early 1600s, is among the classics.
Hamlet, written by Shakespeare sometime in the early 1600s, is among the classics.

4. When the verb “have” meaning possession, we can omit relative pronoun and “have” and use with(+) or without(-).

Students who have enough math and English skills will be admitted.
Students with enough math and English skills will be admitted.

People who don’t have their ID cards can not get in.
People without their ID cards can not get in.

5. We can use infinitive “to” in the cases below.

1. The only. to
2. Superlative. to
3. The first, last, second, next. to

John is the only person who understands me.
John is the only person to understand me.

Tom is the most handsome boy who came to this school.
Tom is the most handsome boy to come to this school.

Jack is the first student who has handed in the exam.
Jack is the first person to have handed in the exam.

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