Упражнения по теме City / Город
Письменные и устные упражнения по теме City / Город
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«Упражнения по теме City / Город»
You definitely know both of these words, which we translate in Russian as “город”. But what is the difference between them? Some dictionaries translate “city” as “a big, more or less significant settlement”, but how to define this “more or less”?
Isn’t it easier to ask a native speaker? And here you are, telling your foreign friend about the place you were born at: “Yeah, we have the beauty in Urjupinsk, that’s my home town . or home city?” “How am I supposed to know?” – he answers you quite seriously. – “Is there a cathedral?” A cathedral?! Actually, atheism has been our state religion for last 70 years. What does this have to do with the question?
It turns out directly one. There is a church – it’s called “a city”, there is no church – “a town”.
Of course, at present this criterion is somewhat outdated, and a small settlement with a population of several hundred thousand people would be called «a town». At the same time, if there is at least some more or less significant production in it, then it will be called “a city”.
In America, town is somewhere between the city and the village. The latter is translated into our language as “деревня”: to be so called in the USA, a settlement must have less than 1000 inhabitants (or occupy no more than 13 km2 of area), most of which are engaged in agriculture. In the town there are from 1,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, while there are practically no multi-storey houses – mostly single-storey ones. However, this distinction is very conditional, since the status of a city is often determined by state laws with regard to financial considerations, since, from a legal point of view, the town and city differ in the type of city management: city is a legally defined entity with all the powers that follow.
What should we do? Both in our cities and in towns there may be multi-storey buildings, therefore it is worth focusing on the population size and the development of the settlement. And if we are talking about a regional center – we should use the word “city”, and if you need to emphasize the compactness – “town”.
There are also a number of phrases in which the words town and city are not interchangeable. Here are some of them:
a town house – таунхаус
one-horse town – городишко, захолустье
the City – Сити, деловой центр Лондона
capital city – столица
city lights – огни большого города.
2. Read the text and write out the English equivalents for the following Russian words:
Of course, we all have smartphones with Internet access, and we can easily find our way in an unfamiliar city using Google maps. However, imagine that charging on the phone is over, and you get lost. What will you do? The introvert’s bad dream becomes a reality: you have to ask the stranger for directions. How to do this effectively?
The structure of European, American and Russian cities is not much different. There is always a downtown (or a center) in the city and its outskirts (where it is better not to go, unless, of course, you are not a risky guy). The city is divided into districts or neighbourhoods (this word is mostly used in Am. E.; in Br. E. it means «окру́га»; also in New York there are boroughs), some of which are notorious, and some – are famous in the whole world as a symbol of luxury and success.
There are streets in all the cities. A street is a road combined with a sidewalk for pedestrians or a cycle path. The central street of the city with shops and developed infrastructure is usually called main street (главная улица). This is accepted in almost all cities of the world, so if you do not know the exact name of the main street or simply cannot pronounce it correctly, ask a passer-by about main street and he will understand where you want to go.
For the average Russian tourist who knows only basic English it won’t be particularly important, a boulevard is in front of him or an avenue. When asking for directions, he will usually use the word “street”. But what is the difference?
Avenue is a wide road, usually with several lanes for driving cars. It is interesting that in order for an ordinary street to turn into an avenue, it must have green plantings on its sides (trees or bushes). Therefore, sometimes an alley in the park or driveway to the house is also called avenue. True, in New York this word has a special meaning. So, in the Manhattan area, all the streets that go from the southwest to the northeast are called avenues, while the thruways perpendicular to them are streets. Each of them has its own serial number. The word “boulevard” came to English from French. Unlike avenue, boulevard means a more busy street with heavy traffic, the traffic lanes of which are separated by green areas. Sometimes a busy city street, regardless of whether it is a street, a boulevard or an avenue, is called a single word “thoroughfare”. It can be translated as “the main artery of the city”.
Another kinds of thruway are alley and lane. An alley is a narrow and small lane between houses or rows of houses. In addition, this word can call the paths in the city park, which in turn can be numbered or even have names mapped for easy orientation. In a city, a lane usually means the passage connecting two parallel streets. As we know from criminal films about New York, various unpleasant events take place in these lanes: thefts, assaults and other crimes. By the way, the word lane is also used to name road lanes, separated by markup. So, on the same road there are usually several lanes. We can also use words “side street”, “alleyway” and “backstreet” to name this passage. But they have their own specifics. For example, the last word is used to denote a very specific place for Britain: a narrow passage between the backyards of terraced houses. In Russian, it can be translated by the word “задворки”.
And what about our word “проспект”? Never translate it with the word “prospekt”! Most often it is translated by the word avenue (whether there are trees on it or not) or the “broad street”.
In addition to various kinds of roads with sidewalks, on which a pedestrian can walk, there are various public spaces in the city: squares, parks, gardens and public gardens, walking areas and just recreation areas. Have you ever wondered what the public garden is different from the park? I have. But let’s talk about it in the next text.
3. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the correct word to name Russian “проспект”?
2. What is the main criterion to name some street “an avenue”?
3. Why should we use the word “backstreet” with wariness?
4. What expression can we use if we want to find the central city district?
5. What is the main difference between avenue and boulevard?
4. Look at the pictures of these famous city districts. Can you name them? What cities they are located in?
Практикум по английскому языку “Прогулка по городу”
Омский лётно-технический колледж гражданской авиации имени А.В. Ляпидевского
– филиал федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения
высшего образования «Ульяновский институт гражданской авиации
имени Главного маршала авиации Б.П. Бугаева»
(ОЛТКГА – филиал ФГБОУ ВО УИ ГА)
Предметная методическая комиссия
Практикум по английскому языку
на тему: «Город. Прогулка по городу»
в помощь курсантам специальностей:
11.02.06 «Техническая эксплуатация транспортного радиоэлектронного оборудования» (по видам транспорта)
25.02.03 «Техническая эксплуатация электрифицированных и пилотажно-навигационных комплексов»
25.02.01 «Техническая эксплуатация летательных аппаратов и двигателей»
25.02.04 «Летная эксплуатация летательных аппаратов»
Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании ПМК ИЯ
Протокол № 2 от 14 октября 2015г.
преподаватель ПМК ИЯ ОЛТК ГА – филиал ФГБОУ ВО УИ ГА Абрашина Т.П.
преподаватель ПМК ИЯ ОЛТК ГА – филиал ФГБОУ ВО УИ ГА Юрченко В.А.
руководитель областного методического объединения преподавателей иностранных языков Омских СПУЗ Паршукова Л.Е.
Абрашина Т.П. Практикум по английскому языку на тему: «Город. Прогулка по городу » -2-е изд., Омск, 2016 – 34 стр.
Практикум составлен по одному из разделов дисциплины «Английский язык» в соответствии с рабочей учебной программой. Ориентирован на курсантов 1 курса специальностей 11.02.06, 25.02.03, 25.02.01, 25.02.04. Практикум включает тексты, тематическую лексику, диалоги и развернутую систему упражнений. Тематика текстов отражает повседневные жизненные ситуации.
© Абрашина Т.П. 2-е издание, переработанное, (дополненное), 2016
© Оригинал-макет: Абрашина Т.П., Попов М.Г.
Данный практикум представляем материал 2-го раздела рабочей программы «Основной курс». Он ориентирован на курсантов 1-го курса всех специальностей и имеет цели ознакомить курсантов с разговорной лексикой, отработать некоторые разделы грамматики, повысить интерес курсантов к изучению английского языка, систематизировать прежние знания английского языка и совершенствовать навыки устной речи.
Практикум включает в себя тему основного курса «Город. Прогулка по городу».
Выбор тематики издания обоснован и актуален. Текстовой основой данного пособия являются материалы, содержащие обширный страноведческий материал. Тексты и упражнения имеют разную степень сложности и доступны курсантам с разным уровнем подготовки. В качестве коммуникативных упражнений предлагаются ролевые игры, диалоги, различные творческие задания, занимательные упражнения, направленные на дальнейшее развитие и совершенствование умений и навыков в области современного разговорного английского языка.
railway station вокзал
bus station автовокзал
car park автопарк
playground детская площадка
seaport / river port морской / речной порт
post office почта
newsagent киоск « Печать
chemist’s / drugstore аптека
police station полицейский участок
swimming pool бассейн
place of interest достопримечательность
to be famous for быть знаменитым
to go sightseeing ходить на экскурсию
to be well-known быть известным
subway подземный переход
crossing наземный переход
Means of Transport Транспорт
underground / tube / metro метро
double – decker двухэтажный автобус
ship судно, пароход
submarine подводная лодка
van фургон, вагон
tip – up lorry самосвал
coach междугородный автобус
sportcar спортивная машина
hovercraft судно на воздушной подушке
to travel by (bus, etc.) ездить на .
to travel on foot ходить пешком
traffic lights светофор
Say what there is in the street
traffic light [‘lra;fiklait|
car park |’ka: pa:k|
supermarket |’sju:p9 ma:kit|
toy shop (‘tDi /эр]
To read, to enact and to learn by heart.
А . Excuse me. How do I get to Trafalgar Square, please.
В. Take bus number 5.
А . Where ‘s the nearest bus stop?
B. It’s down there on the right.
А . Excuse me. How can I get to the British Museum, please?
B. Take the underground.
A. Where ‘s the nearest station?
B. Go straight on to the traffic lights, then turn left and take the first turning on the right.
A. Excuse me. What is the way to the London Dungeon Museum?
B. It’s in Tooley Street. Go down High Street as far as the Tooley Street. The Museum will be on your right.
A. Is it very far?
B. It will take you ten minutes or a quarter of an hour.
A. Is there a bus?
B. I don’t know. There’s the policeman over there. Go and ask him. He will give you all the information you want
III TEXTS FOR READING
Dover is a large town in the south-east of England. It is a big busy port and an important link between Britain and Europe. Dover is sometimes called the “Gateway to Europe”.
There are many interesting places to see in Dover. There is a Roman lighthouse, and the remains of a Roman house. There is also an old castle on top Castle Hill. If you like flowers and trees, there are some very beautiful gardens in the center of the town. Dover is also famous for its chalk cliffs – the renowned “White Cliffs of Dover”.
1 Find the English equivalents in the text.
Юго-восток Англии, меловые скалы, быть знаменитым, старый замок, римский маяк.
1 Why is Dover called the “Gateway to Europe”?
2 Where is Dover?
3 What is Dover famous for?
4 How can you prove that Dover was founded by the Romans?
5 Is it a city or a town?
2 NEW YORK
They call it “The Big Apple”. Everyone wants to bite it.
What is so special about New York? Is it the Empire State Building? The Statue of Liberty? Madison Avenue? Broadway? Greenwich Village?
New York is all this and a little bit more. Some people love it, some hate it. It is the city of contrasts. It can be beautiful and it can be ugly. It can be friendly and it can be rude. It ban be good and it can be bad. But it is never boring. It is the most excit ing city in the world. There is a saying: “ If you can’t do it in New York , you can’t do it anywhere. ” When you say the word Manhattan, many tourists think of big stores, skyscrap ers and hotels . They forget about Green wich Villag e, which is the heart of the city . This is the area of art, latest fashions, old films, books . It is the exact opposite to the Fifth Avenue and Park Lane. Harlem is some times called Black Man hattan. It is known for its street life. It is especially famous for its music and jazz clubs. Louis Armstrong and Duke Elling ton, who were two of the greatest jazz mu sicians, first started to play in Harlem.
1 How is New York sometimes called?
2 What are the main attractions in New York?
3 What is the symbol of New York?
4 Where is it situated?
5 What do you know about Greenwich Village?
6 What is so interesting about Manhattan?
7 How is Harlem called?
8 What is Harlem famous for?
9 What famous musicians came from Harlem?
10 What saying about New York do you know?
2 Find some more information about plac es of interest in New York.
3 SOME FACTS ABOUT LONDON
London is really three cities: the City London , the City of Westminster, the City of Southwark.
London has got a population of about 8 million people. That’s 13 per cent of Brit ain ‘s population.
London stands on the River Thames. There are 27 bridges over the Thames
London and 8 tunnels under the river. London is 46 kilometres from north to south and 58 kilometres from east to west.
1 Ask questions to the text about London.
2 Find out other interesting facts about London.
3 Can you describe places of interest and show them on the map (figure 1)
4 PLACES OF INTEREST IN LONDON
The Buckingham Palace
The Buckingham Palace is the Royal residence. It was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. King George III bought the palace in 1761. It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth and the British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red carpet.
Buckingham palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices , a hos pital , a bar, two sport clubs, a disco, a cine ma and a swimming pool. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work for the Palace.
Omsk is one of the oldest Russian towns. Omsk is situated on the banks о f the Irtysh and Om rivers. It was founded in 1716. The population of our city is more than one million. Before the revolution Omsk was just like any other Siberian town: wooden houses, unpaved, dirty, crooked streets, no parks and gardens . Omsk was a place of exile. Decemberists and revolutionaries were exiled by the tsarist government to Omsk. By the end of the 19-th century the Great Trans Siberian Railway has been put through our town.
Now Omsk is a large industrial , scientific and cultural center of Western Siberia. It produces goods in sum of more than 6 billion rubles a year. Some items are being supplied to more than 60 countries all over the world.
The pride of our city is the first Oil Refinery. There are also a number of other plants in Omsk such as the Synthetic Rubber plant, the Type-making plant, the Smoke-Black plant and others.
Omsk is considered a city of students. There are all kinds of educational institutions in Omsk: universities, technical schools, secondary’ school s and others. The A. S. Pushkin library has become the biggest one in our city . There are a lot of varieties for leisure – theatres, museums, conceit halls , exhibitions, sports grounds , Palaces of Culture, discotheques and swimming pool. They are worth visiting .
But at the same time Omsk is the city with its own unsolved problems. We live in the period of great changes. We strive to revalue many respects and start life afresh. Our energies are directed to creating required productive, living and spiritual conditions for the Omsk residents.
1 Ask questions to the text about Omsk.
1 Where and when was Omsk founded?
2 What is the population of Omsk?
3 How was Omsk like before the revolution?
4 What are the main plants of Omsk?
5 Why is Omsk considered a city of students?
2. Compose the sentences.
Omsk, 1716, to be founded, in.
To be, a, modern, it, city.
To be, the, of, population, our, more, city, than, million, one.
Omsk, a, of, industrial, Siberia, center, large, Western, cultural, to be, scientific, now, and.
Great, we, period, in, live, changes, the, of.
IV MORE EXERCISES
Prepositions of movement
into turn left/right
out of straight on
under take the first/second
up turning on the left/
M ind the prepositions
fly to Oxford Britain
leave for Moscow Ireland
arrive in London England
arrive at Oxford
1 Put instead of points the necessary prepositions.
In 1271 Marco Polo left Venice . Persia.
Sometime later he arrived . China.
In 1272 he got. Tibet.
In 1292 he went. India.
In about 1294 he went back . Persia.
He arrived . Tabriz in 1294 or 1295.
At the end of 1295 he came back . Venice.
2 Look at the map (figure 2) and find your way to the following places. Answer the question, make up the dialogues.
1 You are at the post office. What is the way to the state bank?
2 You are at the market. What is the way to the library?
3 You are at the bus station. What is the way to the restaurant?
4 You are at . . What is the way to . ?
V SPEECH EXERCISES
1 Prepare a picture story of your town or city
a Find some pictures of the most famous places.
b Write captions for them.
c Find some interesting facts about your town or city.
d Write them in your essay.
2 Talk about a city or town you’ve visited.
Use the texts as a model.
3 Draw a map of your district. Describe your route to college, using correct prepositions.
4 Use the map of any city. Describe the tour route.
5 Describe any place of interest you advise us to visit. Use the following words and phrases.
industrial city seaside
suburb, village in the country
mountain village, etc.
in the north / south / west / east of